In September 2008, Steven Ott and Roger Michael Young, two former executives of global communications company ITXC Corporation, were sentenced for their roles in a foreign bribery scheme. Ott and Young pleaded guilty to conspiring to violate the FCPA and admitted that between 1999 - 2004 they conspired with each other and other former company employees and officers to make improper payments to employees of state-owned telecommunications carriers in Nigeria, Rwanda and Senegal to obtain and retain contracts for ITCX. Ott was sentenced to serve five years probation, including six months in a community confinement center and six months home confinement, and ordered to pay a $10,000 fine. Young was also sentenced to serve five years probation, including three months in a community confinement center and three months of home confinement, and ordered to pay a $7,000 fine. According to the DOJ, both individuals received a reduced sentence based on their cooperation with the ongoing investigation into the bribery scheme. A third defendant, Yaw Osei Amoako, also pleaded guilty to the same charges and was previously sentenced to 18 months in prison (as well as two years of supervised release following his prison term) and ordered to pay a $7,500 fine.